COVID-19 პანდემიის ეკონომიკურ ზემოქმედებასთან და უმუშევრობასთან ბრძოლის პროგრამები ყაზახეთსა და უკრაინაში

ავტორი : კრისტინა გომოლკა 16/12/2023

The following article presents economic programmes to combat the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysed programmes were undertaken by the governments of Ukraine and Kazakhstan. They contributed to reducing unemployment in both countries. The findings of Ukrainian researchers focused mainly on estimating losses in the SME sector, especially in the hotel, tourism and transport sectors. Scientific literature in Kazakhstan has focused on examining the effects of the government program to counteract the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially from the labour market perspective (employees). The methods used in the paper include literature studies, analysis of government programmes in the combat against the economic effects of the pandemic and comparative analysis of statistical data of employed and unemployed people in Ukraine and Kazakhstan. The article focuses on identifying the countermeasures undertaken by the governments of Kazakhstan and Ukraine aimed at entrepreneurs and employees. The author also assessed the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the labour market, mainly in terms of unemployment. In the Ukrainian government programme, the main emphasis was placed on supporting entrepreneurs and the self-employed. The government also provided tax preferences, loan grace periods, financial support for enterprises that limited or stopped performance during the pandemic, and special financial assistance for agribusiness. The programme of the Kazakh government was addressed to entrepreneurs, self-employed and employees. The implementation of the programme in Kazakhstan did not encounter any difficulties, while in Ukraine the local authorities did not comply with the decisions of the central authorities. The closure of many businesses or reductions in working hours contributed to rising unemployment in both countries. Kazakhstan was in a more favourable situation, where a small and short-term increase in unemployment was recorded during the COVID-19 pandemic period. In Ukraine, the decline in employment in all sectors of the economy was much greater than in Kazakhstan and meant a significant increase in unemployment.
PDF-ის ჩამოტვირთვა